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    沒有有線網卡的筆記本如何在PVE下All in one?—NAS + Linux +win下載機

    沒有有線網卡的筆記本在PVE下All in one | NAS + Linux + Win下載機 (保姆級未完成版)


     

     

    目錄:

    1、前言
    2、PVE的安裝
    3、PVE聯網前的準備工作
    4、PVE使用無線網卡進行聯網
    5、PVE無線網卡的橋接
    6、PVE下創建虛擬機:NAS + Linux + Win下載機
     

    1、前言

      十年前的舊筆記本,吃灰許久。在海鮮市場看了一下價值也不大,索性利用一下吧。之前弄了臺J4125小主機做了all in  one,買回來才發現不是剛需,吃了我家幾度電便在海鮮市場出掉了。因為最近有NAS的需求,所以想在搞一臺,便宜的吧性能不行 貴的吧買不起,于是鎖定了這臺筆記本。因為這個筆記本是低壓U,應該也不會太耗電吧,過一陣買一個功率儀測一下。

      因為沒有軟路由的需求,我也沒有安裝op、愛快,所以我這里就不寫這一部分了。還有就是這篇博客的主要篇幅是寫關于 如何讓PVE使用無線網卡進行聯網 和 無線網卡的橋接。so,如果你的設備有有線網卡 其實沒必要往下看了 這只會浪費你的時間。大多數人都是用是有線網卡進行連接的,非常突出的優勢:穩定。所以這篇博客可能能幫助到一小部分:設備沒有有線網卡 又或者像我的電腦一樣有有線網卡 但是tmd網口壞了 問了十多家店都沒有這個口。有簡單的方法就是買個USB有線網卡 ,有的網卡可能需要裝一下驅動,這種方法要比弄無線網卡簡單多,穩定性呢,這個我還真不好說,因為我之前買過一個有線網卡,當時是win系統使用,經常性的斷聯,當然也有可能是我usb網卡質量的原因。

      我搞這些東西一直是信奉兩個準則:穩定和簡單。但是這個搞這個無線網卡確實是這幾個可行性方案里最麻煩的,也不是最穩定的。直接買個有有線網卡的設備、用usb有線網卡,minipice有線網卡...... 這些都要比無線網卡要簡單,穩定性的話真不好說(主板自帶的有線網卡最穩定),因為我用了幾天這個無線也確實還行。大家也可以試試這幾個方案。那我為啥還選擇這個無線網卡呢,這個確實是我經過多方面綜合考量來做的決定,一是路由器的網口告急,家里的TV、機頂盒、網關都在用;二是,這個十來年的老筆記本放在電視柜上總是顯得格格不入。所以呢,現階段選擇了它。后面我可能也會測測usb網卡、minipice有線網卡。

      


     

     

      參考:

      電腦只有無線網卡,pve如何聯網 - 知乎 (zhihu.com)

      Proxmox VE(PVE)連接WiFi及一些配置_proxmox連接wifi-CSDN博客

      PVE 使用無線網卡 - 簡書 (jianshu.com)

      Proxmox(pve)使用無線網卡WIFI6-AX210教程 - 嗶哩嗶哩 (bilibili.com)

      proxmox使用ax210連接無線網絡 - 嗶哩嗶哩 (bilibili.com)

      proxmox虛擬機使用NAT網絡 - 嗶哩嗶哩 (bilibili.com)

      Proxmox VE同時配置NAT共享IP和獨立IP虛擬機 - 知乎 (zhihu.com)

      網絡配置 - Proxmox VE

      pve下使用無線網卡做橋接的另一種解決方案:四地址模式-軟路由,x86系統,openwrt(x86),Router OS 等-恩山無線論壇 (right.com.cn)

      PVE聯網及更換國內源 - 今天的努力 - 博客園 (cnblogs.com)

      Proxmox VE(PVE)開啟硬件直通(網卡+硬盤)_pve直通網卡-CSDN博客

      [proxmox ve小技巧]把網卡都直通出去也能管理PVE的方法 - 嗶哩嗶哩 (bilibili.com)

      Proxmox(pve)集群(8)創建虛擬機 - 知乎 (zhihu.com)

      Proxmox VE(PVE)開啟IOMMU功能實現硬件直通及直通錯誤解決_no iommu detected, please activate it.see document-CSDN博客

      ProxmoxVE NAS/AIO實戰- PCIe直通(Ryzen/A卡獨顯直通+SATA控制器直通) - 知乎 (zhihu.com)

      Proxmox VE(PVE)直通顯卡 踩坑經驗 - 企鵝大大的博客 (qiedd.com)

      intel 虛擬化 VT-d VT-x VT-c 有什么區別,各是什么意思,有什么作用 - rebeca8 - 博客園 (cnblogs.com)

      PVE硬件直通之強制IOMMU分組_pve iommu分組-CSDN博客

      佛西博客 - PVE開啟硬件直通功能 (buduanwang.vip)

      PCI直通 - Proxmox VE

      Proxmox VE 中文手冊 v7.3 — Promxox VE 中文文檔 7.1 文檔 (pve-doc-cn.readthedocs.io)

      感謝這些朋友前期的探索和無私分享,為我們后來者提供了非常大的幫助和便利。感謝 感恩?。?!

     

     


     

     

    2、PVE的安裝

      2.1 下載PVE鏡像

        PVE官網下載鏡像:ISO - Proxmox Virtual Environment

        選擇你要安裝的版本,我安裝的是7.4,因為我的筆記本安裝8.x有點問題,索性直接安裝7.x版本。

          

        后續想要升級更新版本,官網有教程:Downloads - Proxmox VE

          

        2.2 鏡像寫入U盤

          推薦一個非常好用的寫盤軟件 balenaetcher 官網下載地址:balenaEtcher - Flash OS images to SD cards & USB drives

          這個步驟 就不寫了

          PS:如果你經常裝機、制作啟動盤推薦一個非常好用的啟動盤制作工具 ventoy 官網:Ventoy

             簡單來說,Ventoy是一個制作可啟動U盤的開源工具。
             有了Ventoy無需反復地格式化U盤,你只需要把 ISO/WIM/IMG/等類型的文件直接拷貝到U盤里面就可以啟動了,無需其他操作?!    ?/p>

        2.3 安裝PVE

          2.3.1 開機選擇u盤啟動

          2.3.2 安裝PVE

          ·  2.3.2.1-A

          

     

          ·  2.3.2.2-B

          

          · 2.3.2.3-C

          

          · 2.3.2.4-D

          

          · 2.3.2.5-E

          

          · 2.3.2.6-F

          管理接口:選擇你要使用的網卡

          主機名:xxx.xxx的域名格式

          IP地址(CIDR):

          網關:

          DNS服務器:114.114.114.114

          

          · 2.3.2.7-G

          

          2.3.3 安裝成功

            安裝成功后自動重啟,會顯示登錄的IP地址和端口,可以通過 https://+IP地址+8006 進行登錄管理,

            但是現在你是用無線網卡進行連接,此時并沒有聯網,所以進不去管理界面,

            現在我們可以通過PVE主機進行設置聯網,之后才可以通過同一局域網的另一設備來進入登錄管理界面

            用戶名:root    密碼:安裝界面 2.3.2.5-E 設置的密碼

            

            · 至此安裝完成 


     

    3、PVE聯網前的準備工作

      3.1 查看網卡的名稱 

        命令:ip a

        一般來說en開頭的是有線網卡,wl開頭的是無線網卡。OK,現在我們記住無線網卡的名稱:wlp2s0

        不要記我的,記你自己的,不同的設備是不一樣的

        如果下面有顯示你的網卡則代表驅動成功,否則需要安裝你的網卡驅動

    ip a

                

      3.2 安裝無線工具

        要使PVE能進行無線網連接那么我們需要安裝兩個工具,才能使PVE的無線網卡進行聯網

        · WiFi掃描工具:wireless-tools

        · WiFi認證工具:wpasupplicant

        ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        · 如果你的設備有有線網卡,那么可以直接插有線進行安裝

        · 如果你有安卓或鴻蒙設備,則可以通過手機的USB網絡共享,使PVE聯網,進行在線安裝

        · 如果以上都無法用,那么你可以選擇離線安裝,只需要一個U盤

        · 如果以上都無法用,那么還有一個非常好的方法,利用隨身WiFi,如果你手上有的話     

        3.2.1 通過有線網絡或者USB共享網絡,進行在線安裝無線工具

          A.  先把你的有線網絡插上 或者把手機用數據線連上電腦,且把手機的USB網絡共享打開

          C.  此時查看一下電腦有沒有識別出來你的有線網卡或者是手機開啟的USB網卡(usb0)

            還記得,我說利用隨身WiFi吧,和這個步驟一樣,只是要換一下網卡名稱

              

          D.  上圖我這里已經識別到了usb0,但是此時還不能上網,還需要配置一下,打開這個文件   

    nano /etc/network/interfaces

          使用手機的USB共享網絡時,直接插電腦上是不會自動配置的,需要在 /etc/network/interfaces 中添加 :     

    auto usb0
    iface usb0 inet dhcp

          

          E. 輸入 reboot 重啟 PVE     

    reboot

          F. 重啟后 輸入 ip a  看一下usb0網卡有沒有IP地址 如果有 ping www.baidu.com 看一下通不通?!    ?/p>

    ip a
    ping www.baidu.com

          G. ping通了 恭喜你 PVE宿主機已經成功聯網,現在讓我們來更新一下。但是現在的是官方源,有點慢,也不是不能用。

           我沒有換,這時你可以選擇用和設備在同一局域網下的另一設備來進行登錄web界面來操作了,我選擇了等待20分鐘哈哈哈,我也把國內源放在這,自己選擇 

    # 更新證書,避免無法使用https協議
    sudo apt install apt-transport-https ca-certificates

    # 替換國內源,文件地址:/etc/apt/sources.list 可先將其備份
    cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak
    文件替換內容:
    # 默認注釋了源碼鏡像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注釋
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free

    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free

    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security bullseye-security main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security bullseye-security main contrib non-free

    # 替換PVE軟件源
    文件地址:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list
    備份命令:cp /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list.bak
    
    替換內容:
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/proxmox/debian bullseye pve-no-subscription     
    #不換源直接跳到這一步
    # 更新一下
    apt-get update

          H. 下一步,可以安裝兩個WiFi工具了    

    apt-get install wpasupplicant wireless-tools

          I. 恭喜安裝成功,下一步可以開始設置連接WiFi了,可以直接跳到

        3.2.2 離線安裝無線工具

          如果你的設備沒有有線網口,不能使用USB共享網絡,手上沒有可用的隨身WiFi,再選擇使用這種方法,因為它相對麻煩

          首先 你要準備一個u盤,另一個可以上此網站且可以連接U盤的設備

          A.  確定PVE的Debian版本       

    cat /etc/debian_version

          

          B.  根據Debian版本來進行下載下載離線安裝包和依賴并復制到U盤的根目錄,把U盤插到設備上

            在線下載:Packages for Linux and Unix - pkgs.org,阿里巴巴開源鏡像站-OPSX鏡像站-阿里云開發者社區 (aliyun.com)

           

          C. 檢查PVE設備有沒有識別你的u盤

    fdisk -l

          

          D. 創建一個目錄用于掛載u盤      

    mkdir /usb

          E. 把U盤 /dev/sdc1 掛載到 /usb 目錄下 ,你的u盤可能是/dev/sdb1,根據3.2.2-C的圖,系統識別出來的名稱。

    mount /dev/sdc1 /usb

          F. 進入U盤目錄,可查看U盤里文件

    cd /usb

          G. 開始安裝,先安裝依賴(l開頭的是依賴),后安裝工具

    dpkg -i xxx+Tab補全

          H. 都安裝成功后,卸載u盤,無線工具安裝成功,reboot重啟一下。下面簡單配置一下就可以使PVE宿主機聯網了

    cd
    umount /dev/sdc1
    reboot

          


     

    4、PVE使用無線網卡進行聯網

      4.1 配置網絡文件

        A. 掃描WiFi,如果出現:Interface doesn't support scanning : Network is down 要開啟一下網卡:ifup 網卡名稱

    iwlist wlp2s0 scanning

        

        B.  獲取wifi連接的密碼的密文

    wpa_passphrase WiFi的SSID WiFi密碼

        

        C. 配置網絡文件 

    nano /etc/network/interfaces

          兩種聯網方式,一、指定靜態ip;二、dhcp自動分配ip。因為后面還得進行橋接配置,所以我就選擇比較簡單的dhcp方式

    # 指定靜態ip
    auto wlp2s0 iface wlp2s0 inet static address
    192.168.1.3/24 gateway 192.168.1.1 wpa-ssid xxxxxx wpa-psk xxxxxxxxxxxxx # dhcp自動分配ip
    auto wlp2s0 iface wlp2s0 inet dhcp wpa-ssid xxxxxx wpa-psk xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

        因為PVE不支持無線網卡的橋接,所以要關閉虛擬網卡橋接無線網卡,否則無法進行聯網。

        如果你的電腦只有無線網卡,或者在安裝的時候你選擇了無線網卡,那么默認生成的配置就會使用無線網卡來作為橋接的網卡

    auto vmbr0
    iface vmbr0 inet static
            address 192.168.100.2/24
            gateway 192.168.100.1
            bridge-ports enp3s0  #enp3s0是虛擬網卡橋接的網卡,如果是你的無線網卡,你需要改成none,即:bridge-ports none
    bridge-stp off bridge-fd 0

        如果你之前設置了USB網絡共享,記得刪除它。

        至此,網絡配置完成。reboot重啟設備。

        

        ping www.baidu.com 看看通不通,恭喜你。

        如果不通 可能需要你來啟動一下無線網卡:

        ifup 網卡名稱 ——打開網卡 (ifdown 網卡名稱——關閉網卡  )

     

      4.2 使用同一局域網的其他設備來管理PVE設備

        A. 查看PVE的IP地址,ip a

    ip a

        

        B. 登錄PVE的web管理頁面

        使用同一局域網的另一設備進入

        https:// + 你的ip地址 + :8006/

        

     

        


     

    5、PVE只有無線網卡實現橋接

      5.1 目前的方案

        A. 使用NAT網絡。在pve中使用一個虛擬網口作為網關,通過設置ipv4轉發將所有請求到這個虛擬網口的流量轉發到無線網卡上,從而實現pve中使用無線網卡為虛擬機提供網絡  PVE 使用無線網卡 - 簡書 (jianshu.com)

        虛擬機對pve的上級設備(路由器)不可見,因為所有流量都是通過ipv4轉發到無線網卡上的,對路由器而言流量就像是來自pve本身,而非虛擬機,因此外部設備(比如路由器,或另一臺電腦)想訪問虛擬機就得手動在pve中設置路由表

        虛擬機內需要做額外的IP設置才能實現轉發,或PVE同時需要作為dhcp-server

        B. 使用用win去橋接。將所有網絡設備全部直通給一個精簡版的win,使用用win去橋接

        非必要使用win,單獨為了橋接開一個win,占用設備資源

        C. 四地址模式。通過在數據包包含一個額外的MAC地址字段,使得無線網卡可以知道數據包是為橋接的其他設備而發送的,解決了無線網絡無法直接作為橋接端口的問題 pve下使用無線網卡做橋接的另一種解決方案:四地址模式-軟路由,x86系統,openwrt(x86),Router OS 等-恩山無線論壇 (right.com.cn)

        你的無線網卡和無線接入點必須得支持四地址模式

        iw list命令,輸出信息找到"Supported interface modes"部分,如果有 "AP/VLAN"或"mesh point",那么你的無線網卡應該支持四地址模式。

        5.1節參考文章:pve下使用無線網卡做橋接的另一種解決方案:四地址模式-軟路由,x86系統,openwrt(x86),Router OS 等-恩山無線論壇 (right.com.cn)

        

      5.2 虛擬機橋接配置

        因為本來就有用win來做下載機的打算,所以對于我來說不算占用設備資源,我選擇5.1-B的方案

        另外兩個方案,我有掛大佬的配置鏈接,根據自己的需求,選擇適合自己的方式

        5.1.1 Win10虛擬機的安裝

        A. 在web管理界面,上傳Win10的鏡像

        

     

        B. 創建虛擬機

        

        C. 選擇IOS鏡像,選擇客戶機操作系統,如果是Linux的系統客戶機操作系統那里,保持默認就好。

        

        D. 系統配置

         顯卡:根據自己的需求進行選擇,我這里沒有對顯卡的特殊需求,故選擇默認即可

         機型:按需選擇     

          i440fx:一個舊的主板模擬類型,它模擬的是 Intel 440FX 主板,該主板用于早期的 x86 架構計算機。i440fx 是一種較為傳統和兼容性較高的選擇,適用于需要與老舊操作系統或特定硬件環境兼容的情況。然而,i440fx 在一些高級特性方面可能有一些限制,并且不支持某些現代技術。

          q35:一種更現代的主板模擬類型,它模擬的是 Intel Q35 Express 芯片組,該芯片組用于較新的 x86 架構計算機。q35 提供了更多的功能和先進的虛擬化特性,如 PCI Express 設備的直通、高級電源管理等。它在性能和功能方面相對較好,適用于大多數現代虛擬化場景。

     

         SCSI控制器:按需選擇

          virtIO SCSI:virtIO SCSI 是一種在虛擬化環境中常用的高性能虛擬存儲控制器。它通過使用 QEMU 的 virtIO 驅動程序和 SCSI 協議實現,提供了較低的虛擬化開銷和更好的性能。virtIO SCSI 可以與虛擬機中的客戶操作系統進行直接通信,提供快速、可靠的存儲訪問。

          virtIO SCSI Single:virtIO SCSI Single 是 virtIO SCSI 控制器的一個變種,它只有一個隊列。相比于普通的 virtIO SCSI,它在一些場景中可能會有較低的性能,但對于某些特定的用例或舊版本的操作系統可能更適用。

          MegaRAID SAS 8708EM2:MegaRAID SAS 8708EM2 是一款物理存儲控制器,用于管理和控制 SATA 和 SAS 硬盤驅動器。它是 LSI Logic(現在是 Broadcom)生產的硬件 RAID 控制器,支持多種 RAID 級別和高級功能,如熱插拔、緩存和數據保護。

          LSI 53C810:LSI 53C810 是一款舊版的 SCSI 控制器,用于連接和管理 SCSI 設備。它是古老的硬件設備,通常在過去用于連接磁盤驅動器、磁帶機等 SCSI 設備。

          LSI 53C895A:LSI 53C895A 是一款先進的 SCSI 控制器,也用于連接和管理 SCSI 設備。它提供更高的性能和更多的功能,支持廣泛的 SCSI 設備和高級特性。

         

     

     

        E. 磁盤

        總線/設備:

         IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics)是一種較舊的接口標準,用于將存儲設備(例如硬盤和光驅)連接到計算機。它已經被較新的標準如SATA所取代。

         SATA(Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)是一種現代的接口標準,用于將存儲設備連接到計算機。相比IDE,它提供更快的數據傳輸速度和更好的性能。

         VirtIO block是一種虛擬化接口,可以使虛擬機有效地訪問存儲設備。它為運行在虛擬機中的客戶操作系統與超級監視程序或主機系統的存儲子系統之間提供了標準化的通信方式。

         SCSI(Small Computer System Interface)是一組標準,定義了計算機和外部設備(包括存儲設備)之間的通信方式。SCSI最初設計用于將多個設備連接到單個總線,但隨著時間的推移,它不斷發展,并包括支持不同傳輸速度和技術的各種版本和協議。

     

        緩存:

         無緩存(No cache):數據直接讀寫到磁盤,沒有使用任何緩存。這種方式可以保證數據的持久性和一致性,但讀寫性能較低。

         Direct sync(直接同步):數據先被寫入緩存,然后同步寫入磁盤。在數據同步完成之前,系統會阻塞等待磁盤操作完成的確認信號。這種方式可以提高寫入性能,但仍保證了數據的持久性和一致性。

         Write through(寫透):數據先被寫入緩存,然后立即被寫入磁盤。寫入緩存和寫入磁盤是同時進行的,不需要等待磁盤操作的確認。這種方式可以提高寫入性能,但對于讀取操作,仍需要從磁盤中獲取數據,可能降低讀取性能。

         Write back(寫回):數據首先被寫入緩存,然后根據一定的策略異步寫入磁盤。在此期間,應用程序可以繼續執行其他操作,而不需要等待磁盤操作完成的確認。這種方式可以顯著提高寫入性能,但存在數據丟失的風險,因為在數據寫入磁盤之前發生系統崩潰或斷電時,緩存中的數據會丟失。

         Writeback(不安全的寫回):與"Write back"相似,但沒有提供有效的機制來保護數據免受系統崩潰或斷電的影響。這種方式的優勢是更高的寫入性能,但風險更大,可能導致數據丟失或不一致。因此,它通常用于對數據完整性要求較低、但需要更高性能的應用場景。

     

        異步IO:

         io_uring是一個Linux內核提供的異步I/O框架,它可以實現高效的非阻塞I/O操作。通過使用io_uring,應用程序可以在發起I/O請求后繼續執行其他任務,而無需等待I/O操作完成,從而提高了系統的并發性和吞吐量。

         Native通常指的是原生線程(native threads)。原生線程是由操作系統直接支持和管理的線程,與特定的編程語言或庫無關。使用原生線程可以充分利用操作系統提供的多線程調度和同步機制,但也可能會面臨線程創建、銷毀和上下文切換等開銷較大的問題。

         Threads(線程)是一種輕量級的執行單元,可以在應用程序中并發執行不同的任務。線程可以是原生線程,也可以是由編程語言或庫提供的抽象層實現的用戶級線程。用戶級線程使用協作式調度而不是操作系統的調度機制,并且其創建和切換的開銷較小,但在某些情況下可能受到系統資源限制或阻塞調用的影響。

        

        F. CPU、內存

        根據自己的CPU和客戶機的大概使用資源來填寫合適的

        

        

        G. 網絡

        模型:

         Intel E1000:這是一種基于軟件仿真的虛擬網絡適配器,模擬了Intel 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet控制器。E1000廣泛用于許多虛擬化平臺,性能穩定且兼容性良好。

         VirtIO半虛擬化:VirtIO是一種半虛擬化技術,通過在虛擬機和宿主機之間共享驅動程序和設備模型來提供高性能和低延遲的網絡通信。VirtIO網絡適配器需要使用相應的VirtIO驅動程序來實現。

         Realtek RTL8139:這是一種基于軟件仿真的虛擬網絡適配器,模擬了Realtek RTL8139 Fast Ethernet控制器。RTL8139適用于一些虛擬化平臺,但性能可能相對較低。

         VMware VMXNET3:這是VMware開發的高性能虛擬網絡適配器,專門為VMware虛擬化環境優化。VMXNET3提供了高速數據傳輸、低CPU利用率和更好的網絡性能,適用于在VMware虛擬機上運行的場景。

        

     

        H. 完成安裝

     

        5.1.2 配置橋接

        md 卡在直通了,

        我在英特爾官網:英特爾? 產品規格高級搜索 (intel.com) 確認了,這個cpu型號的支持,

        還在win下用英特爾的官方軟件檢測了支持,英特爾? 處理器標識實用程序 - Windows* 版本 (intel.cn)

        

        

        文件也進行了配置

    /etc/default/grub
    
    

    GRUB_DEFAULT=0
    GRUB_TIMEOUT=5
    GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_iommu=on"
    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=""


    update-grub /etc/modules vfio vfio_iommu_type1 vfio_pci vfio_virqfd
    update-initramfs -u -k all reboot
       

        根據官網步驟:https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/PCI_Passthrough  和其他網友的步驟來進行驗證

    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU
    [    0.048212] DMAR: IOMMU enabled
    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep 'remapping'
    [    0.137483] x2apic: IRQ remapping doesn't support X2APIC mode
    root@pve:~# 

    # 貌似,問題出在了 dmesg | grep 'remapping'
    # 按照官網的說法:

    如果你看到以下一行:

    • AMD-Vi: Interrupt remapping enabled
    • DMAR-IR: Enabled IRQ remapping in x2apic mode ('x2apic' can be different on old CPUs, but should still work)DMAR-IR: Enabled IRQ remapping in x2apic mode  ('x2apic' 在老的 CPU 上可能有所不同,但仍然可以工作)

       那么支持重映射。

    然而,我的則輸出:x2apic: IRQ remapping doesn't support X2APIC mode

    那么我便開始嘗試,官網給出的解決方案:

      If your system doesn't support interrupt remapping, you can allow unsafe interrupts with:如果你的系統不支持中斷重映射,你可以使用以下命令來允許不安全的中斷:

        echo "options vfio_iommu_type1 allow_unsafe_interrupts=1" > /etc/modprobe.d/iommu_unsafe_interrupts.conf

    然而輸出結果仍是:

    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU
    [ 0.048333] DMAR: IOMMU enabled
    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep 'remapping'
    [ 0.137838] x2apic: IRQ remapping doesn't support X2APIC mode
    root@pve:~#

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------

    我去問了gpt,他給我的回答:

      gtp:

      根據您提供的dmesg輸出,可以看到系統中的IOMMU已經被啟用。這表明您的Proxmox Virtual Environment主機已經啟用了IOMMU硬件虛擬化支持,這是硬件直通功能的前提之一。

      關于"IRQ remapping doesn't support X2APIC mode"的消息,這個消息通常是由于系統檢測到x2APIC模式下的IRQ重映射不受支持而引起的。x2APIC是一種高級的APIC(高級可編程中斷控制器)模式,通常用于提高性能和擴展性。這個消息本身并不一定表示問題,只是系統提示IRQ重映射在x2APIC模式下不支持。

      在大多數情況下,這個消息并不會導致硬件直通功能的問題。如果您在配置硬件直通或在使用虛擬機時遇到性能或穩定性問題,可以考慮將系統切換回傳統的APIC模式,以查看是否有改善。

      如果您有任何其他關于硬件直通或Proxmox Virtual Environment的問題,歡迎繼續提問,我會盡力幫助您解決問題。

      我:

      如何切換:考慮將系統切換回傳統的APIC模式

      gpt: 

      要將系統切換回傳統的APIC模式,您可以在系統引導時通過內核參數來指定。下面是一般步驟:

      1. **編輯GRUB配置**:
      - 打開終端并編輯GRUB配置文件。通常,GRUB配置文件位于`/etc/default/grub`。
      - 找到`GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX`行,這里列出了內核啟動參數。
      - 在引號內添加`nox2apic`參數。確保在其他參數之間用空格分隔。

      2. **更新GRUB配置**:
      - 保存更改后,運行以下命令更新GRUB配置:`sudo update-grub`。

      3. **重啟系統**:
      - 重新啟動您的系統,以使更改生效。

      在系統重新啟動后,系統將以傳統的APIC模式啟動,而不是x2APIC模式。這可能會對硬件直通的性能或穩定性產生影響,具體影響可能因系統和硬件配置而異。如果您在切換回傳統APIC模式后遇到任何問題,請記得可以隨時再次編輯GRUB配置文件并刪除`nox2apic`參數來恢復默認設置。

      請在執行此操作之前確保您了解正在進行的更改,并根據您的具體情況謹慎操作。如果您需要更多幫助或有其他問題,請隨時告訴我。

    輸出結果:

    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU
    [ 0.047596] DMAR: IOMMU enabled
    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep 'remapping'
    root@pve:~#

    是的,x2apic: IRQ remapping doesn't support X2APIC mode ,這行輸出沒有了。我把這個信息反饋給gpt,然后他并沒給我有用的可行方案。

    目前看來,我的IOMMU已經啟用,除了,DMAR: IOMMU enabled,沒有任何輸出信息。是不是還沒有進行分組呢?

    官網給出的下一個步驟:

    Verify IOMMU isolation 驗證 IOMMU 隔離

    For working PCI passthrough, you need a dedicated IOMMU group for all PCI devices you want to assign to a VM.對于PCI直通,您需要一個專用的IOMMU組,用于所有您希望分配給VM的PCI設備。

    root@pve:~# find /sys/kernel/iommu_groups/ -type l
    root@pve:~#

    這將列出每個IOMMU組中的設備。如果每個組中只有一個設備,則表示IOMMU沒有正確進行分組

    沒有任何輸出信息,

    To have separate IOMMU groups, your processor needs to have support for a feature called ACS (Access Control Services). Make sure you enable the corresponding setting in your BIOS for this.

    要擁有獨立的 IOMMU 組,您的處理器需要支持一個稱為 ACS (訪問控制服務)的特性。請確保您在 BIOS 中啟用了相應的設置。

    If you don't have dedicated IOMMU groups, you can try moving the card to another PCI slot.

    如果您沒有專用的 IOMMU 組,您可以嘗試將該卡移動到另一個 PCI 插槽。

    Should that not work, you can try using Alex Williamson's ACS override patch. However, this should be seen as a last option and is not without risks.

    如果這不起作用,您可以嘗試使用 Alex Williamson 的 ACS 覆蓋補丁。然而,這應該被視為最后的選擇,并且不是沒有風險。

    As of writing, the ACS patch is part of the Proxmox VE kernel and can be invoked via Editing the kernel command line. Addto the kernel boot command line (grub or systemd-boot) options.

    在撰寫本文時,ACS補丁是Proxmox VE內核的一部分,可以通過編輯內核命令行來調用。

    pcie_acs_override=downstream

    隨后我在,/etc/default/grub中,進行了修改:

      GRUB_DEFAULT=0
      GRUB_TIMEOUT=5
      GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
      GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_iommu=on pcie_acs_override=downstream video=vesafb:off vide>
      GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="nox2apic"

      #也嘗試了,GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet intel_iommu=on pcie_acs_override=downstream,multifunction"

     然而并不起作用。只是給我這樣的輸出信息:

      root@pve:~# dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU
      [ 0.000000] Warning: PCIe ACS overrides enabled; This may allow non-IOMMU protected peer-to-peer DMA
      [ 0.047964] DMAR: IOMMU enabled
      root@pve:~# dmesg | grep 'remapping'
      root@pve:~# find /sys/kernel/iommu_groups/ -type l
      root@pve:~#

     

    檢查是否直接支持IOMMU分組,lspci -vv,如果設備信息中支持ACS(Access Control Services),便可直接通過設置開啟IOMMU分組。若不支持ACS,需要更新內核,關閉ACS檢查,開啟IOMMU分組,

      /* 檢查是否存在Capabilities: Access Control Services*/

      Capabilities: [2a0] Access Control Services

     

    哪位大佬可以搞定,歡迎留言指出,我將會不勝感激。

     

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    root@pve:~# dmesg | grep iommu
    [ 0.000000] Command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-6.5.11-8-pve root=/dev/mapper/pve-root ro nox2apic quiet intel_iommu=on pcie_acs_override=downstream video=vesafb:off video=efifb:off
    [ 0.047783] Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-6.5.11-8-pve root=/dev/mapper/pve-root ro nox2apic quiet intel_iommu=on pcie_acs_override=downstream video=vesafb:off video=efifb:off
    [ 0.569130] iommu: Default domain type: Translated
    [ 0.569130] iommu: DMA domain TLB invalidation policy: lazy mode
    root@pve:~#

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    root@pve:~# lspci
    00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers (rev 08)
    00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Skylake GT2 [HD Graphics 520] (rev 07)
    00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Controller (rev 21)
    00:14.2 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Thermal subsystem (rev 21)
    00:15.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Controller #0 (rev 21)
    00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI #1 (rev 21)
    00:17.0 SATA controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHCI mode] (rev 21)
    00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #1 (rev f1)
    00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #5 (rev f1)
    00:1c.5 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #6 (rev f1)
    00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP LPC Controller (rev 21)
    00:1f.2 Memory controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PMC (rev 21)
    00:1f.3 Audio device: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio (rev 21)
    00:1f.4 SMBus: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SMBus (rev 21)
    01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GK208BM [GeForce 920M] (rev a1)
    01:00.1 Audio device: NVIDIA Corporation GK208 HDMI/DP Audio Controller (rev a1)
    02:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 3165 Plus Bluetooth (rev 79)
    03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 15)
    root@pve:~#

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

    root@pve:~# lspci -k
    00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers (rev 08)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers
    Kernel driver in use: skl_uncore
    00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Skylake GT2 [HD Graphics 520] (rev 07)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Skylake GT2 [HD Graphics 520]
    Kernel driver in use: i915
    Kernel modules: i915
    00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Controller (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Controller
    Kernel driver in use: xhci_hcd
    Kernel modules: xhci_pci
    00:14.2 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Thermal subsystem (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP Thermal subsystem
    Kernel driver in use: intel_pch_thermal
    Kernel modules: intel_pch_thermal
    00:15.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Controller #0 (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Controller
    Kernel driver in use: intel-lpss
    Kernel modules: intel_lpss_pci
    00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI #1 (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI
    Kernel driver in use: mei_me
    Kernel modules: mei_me
    00:17.0 SATA controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHCI mode] (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHCI mode]
    Kernel driver in use: ahci
    Kernel modules: ahci
    00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #1 (rev f1)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport
    00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #5 (rev f1)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport
    00:1c.5 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #6 (rev f1)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport
    00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP LPC Controller (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP LPC Controller
    00:1f.2 Memory controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PMC (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PMC
    00:1f.3 Audio device: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio
    Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
    Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel, snd_soc_skl, snd_soc_avs, snd_sof_pci_intel_skl
    00:1f.4 SMBus: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SMBus (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP SMBus
    Kernel driver in use: i801_smbus
    Kernel modules: i2c_i801
    01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GK208BM [GeForce 920M] (rev a1)
    Subsystem: Lenovo GK208BM [GeForce 920M]
    Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau
    01:00.1 Audio device: NVIDIA Corporation GK208 HDMI/DP Audio Controller (rev a1)
    Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
    Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel
    02:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 3165 Plus Bluetooth (rev 79)
    Subsystem: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 3165
    Kernel driver in use: iwlwifi
    Kernel modules: iwlwifi
    03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 15)
    Subsystem: Lenovo RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller
    Kernel driver in use: r8169
    Kernel modules: r8169
    root@pve:~#

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    root@pve:~# lspci -vv
    00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers (rev 08)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Xeon E3-1200 v5/E3-1500 v5/6th Gen Core Processor Host Bridge/DRAM Registers
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Capabilities: [e0] Vendor Specific Information: Len=10 <?>
    Kernel driver in use: skl_uncore

    00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Skylake GT2 [HD Graphics 520] (rev 07) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Skylake GT2 [HD Graphics 520]
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 128
    Region 0: Memory at d0000000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
    Region 2: Memory at c0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
    Region 4: I/O ports at e000 [size=64]
    Expansion ROM at 000c0000 [virtual] [disabled] [size=128K]
    Capabilities: [40] Vendor Specific Information: Len=0c <?>
    Capabilities: [70] Express (v2) Root Complex Integrated Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0
    ExtTag- RBE+ FLReset+
    DevCtl: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop- FLReset-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr- TransPend-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Not Supported, TimeoutDis- NROPrPrP- LTR-
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS-
    AtomicOpsCap: 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled,
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn-
    Capabilities: [ac] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee08004 Data: 0024
    Capabilities: [d0] Power Management version 2
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI+ D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Process Address Space ID (PASID)
    PASIDCap: Exec+ Priv-, Max PASID Width: 14
    PASIDCtl: Enable- Exec- Priv-
    Capabilities: [200 v1] Address Translation Service (ATS)
    ATSCap: Invalidate Queue Depth: 00
    ATSCtl: Enable-, Smallest Translation Unit: 00
    Capabilities: [300 v1] Page Request Interface (PRI)
    PRICtl: Enable- Reset-
    PRISta: RF- UPRGI- Stopped-
    Page Request Capacity: 00008000, Page Request Allocation: 00000000
    Kernel driver in use: i915
    Kernel modules: i915

    00:14.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Controller (rev 21) (prog-if 30 [XHCI])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP USB 3.0 xHCI Controller
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster- SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 124
    Region 0: Memory at d2300000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=64K]
    Capabilities: [70] Power Management version 2
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=375mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D3 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable+ DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/8 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee08004 Data: 0023
    Kernel driver in use: xhci_hcd
    Kernel modules: xhci_pci

    00:14.2 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Thermal subsystem (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP Thermal subsystem
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster- SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Interrupt: pin C routed to IRQ 18
    Region 0: Memory at d232a000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
    Capabilities: [50] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI+ D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable- Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: 00000000 Data: 0000
    Kernel driver in use: intel_pch_thermal
    Kernel modules: intel_pch_thermal

    00:15.0 Signal processing controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Controller #0 (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP Serial IO I2C Controller
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0, Cache Line Size: 64 bytes
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 16
    Region 0: Memory at d232b000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
    Capabilities: [80] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D3 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [90] Vendor Specific Information: Len=14 <?>
    Kernel driver in use: intel-lpss
    Kernel modules: intel_lpss_pci

    00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI #1 (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP CSME HECI
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 126
    Region 0: Memory at d232c000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
    Capabilities: [50] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [8c] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee01004 Data: 0023
    Kernel driver in use: mei_me
    Kernel modules: mei_me

    00:17.0 SATA controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHCI mode] (rev 21) (prog-if 01 [AHCI 1.0])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP SATA Controller [AHCI mode]
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 123
    Region 0: Memory at d2328000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=8K]
    Region 1: Memory at d2331000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=256]
    Region 2: I/O ports at e080 [size=8]
    Region 3: I/O ports at e088 [size=4]
    Region 4: I/O ports at e060 [size=32]
    Region 5: Memory at d232f000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=2K]
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee04004 Data: 0023
    Capabilities: [70] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [a8] SATA HBA v1.0 BAR4 Offset=00000004
    Kernel driver in use: ahci
    Kernel modules: ahci

    00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #1 (rev f1) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 120
    Bus: primary=00, secondary=01, subordinate=01, sec-latency=0
    I/O behind bridge: d000-dfff [size=4K] [16-bit]
    Memory behind bridge: d1000000-d20fffff [size=17M] [32-bit]
    Prefetchable memory behind bridge: a0000000-b1ffffff [size=288M] [32-bit]
    Secondary status: 66MHz- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- <PERR-
    BridgeCtl: Parity- SERR+ NoISA- VGA- VGA16- MAbort- >Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 256 bytes, PhantFunc 0
    ExtTag- RBE+
    DevCtl: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr+ FatalErr+ UnsupReq+
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 256 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #1, Speed 5GT/s, Width x4, ASPM not supported
    ClockPM- Surprise- LLActRep+ BwNot+ ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM- AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 5GT/s, Width x4
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive+ BWMgmt+ ABWMgmt-
    SltCap: AttnBtn- PwrCtrl- MRL- AttnInd- PwrInd- HotPlug- Surprise-
    Slot #0, PowerLimit 25W; Interlock- NoCompl+
    SltCtl: Enable: AttnBtn- PwrFlt- MRL- PresDet- CmdCplt- HPIrq- LinkChg-
    Control: AttnInd Unknown, PwrInd Unknown, Power- Interlock-
    SltSta: Status: AttnBtn- PowerFlt- MRL- CmdCplt- PresDet+ Interlock-
    Changed: MRL- PresDet- LinkState+
    RootCap: CRSVisible-
    RootCtl: ErrCorrectable- ErrNon-Fatal- ErrFatal- PMEIntEna+ CRSVisible-
    RootSta: PME ReqID 0000, PMEStatus- PMEPending-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range ABC, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR+
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- LN System CLS Not Supported, TPHComp- ExtTPHComp- ARIFwd+
    AtomicOpsCap: Routing- 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR+ 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled, ARIFwd-
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn- EgressBlck-
    LnkCap2: Supported Link Speeds: 2.5-5GT/s, Crosslink- Retimer- 2Retimers- DRS-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -6dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee04004 Data: 0021
    Capabilities: [90] Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Capabilities: [a0] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0+,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Advanced Error Reporting
    UESta: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UEMsk: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt+ RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UESvrt: DLP+ SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF+ MalfTLP+ ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    CESta: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr-
    CEMsk: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr+
    AERCap: First Error Pointer: 00, ECRCGenCap- ECRCGenEn- ECRCChkCap- ECRCChkEn-
    MultHdrRecCap- MultHdrRecEn- TLPPfxPres- HdrLogCap-
    HeaderLog: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
    RootCmd: CERptEn+ NFERptEn+ FERptEn+
    RootSta: CERcvd- MultCERcvd- UERcvd- MultUERcvd-
    FirstFatal- NonFatalMsg- FatalMsg- IntMsg 0
    ErrorSrc: ERR_COR: 0000 ERR_FATAL/NONFATAL: 0000
    Capabilities: [140 v1] Access Control Services
    ACSCap: SrcValid+ TransBlk+ ReqRedir+ CmpltRedir+ UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    ACSCtl: SrcValid- TransBlk- ReqRedir- CmpltRedir- UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport

    00:1c.4 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #5 (rev f1) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 121
    Bus: primary=00, secondary=02, subordinate=02, sec-latency=0
    I/O behind bridge: [disabled] [16-bit]
    Memory behind bridge: d2200000-d22fffff [size=1M] [32-bit]
    Prefetchable memory behind bridge: [disabled] [64-bit]
    Secondary status: 66MHz- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- <PERR-
    BridgeCtl: Parity- SERR+ NoISA- VGA- VGA16- MAbort- >Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 256 bytes, PhantFunc 0
    ExtTag- RBE+
    DevCtl: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #5, Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L1, Exit Latency L1 <16us
    ClockPM- Surprise- LLActRep+ BwNot+ ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM L1 Enabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM- AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive+ BWMgmt+ ABWMgmt-
    SltCap: AttnBtn- PwrCtrl- MRL- AttnInd- PwrInd- HotPlug- Surprise-
    Slot #4, PowerLimit 10W; Interlock- NoCompl+
    SltCtl: Enable: AttnBtn- PwrFlt- MRL- PresDet- CmdCplt- HPIrq- LinkChg-
    Control: AttnInd Unknown, PwrInd Unknown, Power- Interlock-
    SltSta: Status: AttnBtn- PowerFlt- MRL- CmdCplt- PresDet+ Interlock-
    Changed: MRL- PresDet- LinkState+
    RootCap: CRSVisible-
    RootCtl: ErrCorrectable- ErrNon-Fatal- ErrFatal- PMEIntEna+ CRSVisible-
    RootSta: PME ReqID 0000, PMEStatus- PMEPending-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range ABC, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR+
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- LN System CLS Not Supported, TPHComp- ExtTPHComp- ARIFwd+
    AtomicOpsCap: Routing- 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR+ 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled, ARIFwd-
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn- EgressBlck-
    LnkCap2: Supported Link Speeds: 2.5-5GT/s, Crosslink- Retimer- 2Retimers- DRS-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -3.5dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee08004 Data: 0021
    Capabilities: [90] Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Capabilities: [a0] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0+,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [100 v0] Null
    Capabilities: [140 v1] Access Control Services
    ACSCap: SrcValid+ TransBlk+ ReqRedir+ CmpltRedir+ UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    ACSCtl: SrcValid- TransBlk- ReqRedir- CmpltRedir- UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    Capabilities: [200 v1] L1 PM Substates
    L1SubCap: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+ L1_PM_Substates+
    PortCommonModeRestoreTime=40us PortTPowerOnTime=10us
    L1SubCtl1: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+
    T_CommonMode=40us LTR1.2_Threshold=106496ns
    L1SubCtl2: T_PwrOn=60us
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport

    00:1c.5 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port #6 (rev f1) (prog-if 00 [Normal decode])
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin B routed to IRQ 122
    Bus: primary=00, secondary=03, subordinate=03, sec-latency=0
    I/O behind bridge: c000-cfff [size=4K] [16-bit]
    Memory behind bridge: d2100000-d21fffff [size=1M] [32-bit]
    Prefetchable memory behind bridge: [disabled] [64-bit]
    Secondary status: 66MHz- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- <PERR-
    BridgeCtl: Parity- SERR+ NoISA- VGA- VGA16- MAbort- >Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 256 bytes, PhantFunc 0
    ExtTag- RBE+
    DevCtl: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr+ FatalErr+ UnsupReq+
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #6, Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L1, Exit Latency L1 <16us
    ClockPM- Surprise- LLActRep+ BwNot+ ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM- AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive+ BWMgmt+ ABWMgmt-
    SltCap: AttnBtn- PwrCtrl- MRL- AttnInd- PwrInd- HotPlug- Surprise-
    Slot #5, PowerLimit 10W; Interlock- NoCompl+
    SltCtl: Enable: AttnBtn- PwrFlt- MRL- PresDet- CmdCplt- HPIrq- LinkChg-
    Control: AttnInd Unknown, PwrInd Unknown, Power- Interlock-
    SltSta: Status: AttnBtn- PowerFlt- MRL- CmdCplt- PresDet+ Interlock-
    Changed: MRL- PresDet- LinkState+
    RootCap: CRSVisible-
    RootCtl: ErrCorrectable- ErrNon-Fatal- ErrFatal- PMEIntEna+ CRSVisible-
    RootSta: PME ReqID 0000, PMEStatus- PMEPending-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range ABC, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR+
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- LN System CLS Not Supported, TPHComp- ExtTPHComp- ARIFwd+
    AtomicOpsCap: Routing- 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR+ 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled, ARIFwd-
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn- EgressBlck-
    LnkCap2: Supported Link Speeds: 2.5-5GT/s, Crosslink- Retimer- 2Retimers- DRS-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -3.5dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [80] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee01004 Data: 0021
    Capabilities: [90] Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PCI Express Root Port
    Capabilities: [a0] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0+,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Advanced Error Reporting
    UESta: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UEMsk: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt+ RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UESvrt: DLP+ SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF+ MalfTLP+ ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    CESta: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr-
    CEMsk: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr+
    AERCap: First Error Pointer: 00, ECRCGenCap- ECRCGenEn- ECRCChkCap- ECRCChkEn-
    MultHdrRecCap- MultHdrRecEn- TLPPfxPres- HdrLogCap-
    HeaderLog: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
    RootCmd: CERptEn+ NFERptEn+ FERptEn+
    RootSta: CERcvd- MultCERcvd- UERcvd- MultUERcvd-
    FirstFatal- NonFatalMsg- FatalMsg- IntMsg 0
    ErrorSrc: ERR_COR: 0000 ERR_FATAL/NONFATAL: 0000
    Capabilities: [140 v1] Access Control Services
    ACSCap: SrcValid+ TransBlk+ ReqRedir+ CmpltRedir+ UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    ACSCtl: SrcValid- TransBlk- ReqRedir- CmpltRedir- UpstreamFwd- EgressCtrl- DirectTrans-
    Capabilities: [200 v1] L1 PM Substates
    L1SubCap: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+ L1_PM_Substates+
    PortCommonModeRestoreTime=40us PortTPowerOnTime=10us
    L1SubCtl1: PCI-PM_L1.2- PCI-PM_L1.1- ASPM_L1.2- ASPM_L1.1-
    T_CommonMode=150us LTR1.2_Threshold=306176ns
    L1SubCtl2: T_PwrOn=150us
    Kernel driver in use: pcieport

    00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP LPC Controller (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP LPC Controller
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap- 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0

    00:1f.2 Memory controller: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP PMC (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP PMC
    Control: I/O- Mem- BusMaster- SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap- 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Region 0: Memory at d2324000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [disabled] [size=16K]

    00:1f.3 Audio device: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP HD Audio
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 64
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 129
    Region 0: Memory at d2320000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
    Region 4: Memory at d2310000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=64K]
    Capabilities: [50] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=55mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D3 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable+ DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [60] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee01004 Data: 0024
    Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
    Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel, snd_soc_skl, snd_soc_avs, snd_sof_pci_intel_skl

    00:1f.4 SMBus: Intel Corporation Sunrise Point-LP SMBus (rev 21)
    Subsystem: Lenovo Sunrise Point-LP SMBus
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster- SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap- 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 16
    Region 0: Memory at d2330000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=256]
    Region 4: I/O ports at efa0 [size=32]
    Kernel driver in use: i801_smbus
    Kernel modules: i2c_i801

    01:00.0 3D controller: NVIDIA Corporation GK208BM [GeForce 920M] (rev a1)
    Subsystem: Lenovo GK208BM [GeForce 920M]
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 255
    Region 0: Memory at d1000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
    Region 1: Memory at a0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
    Region 3: Memory at b0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M]
    Region 5: I/O ports at d000 [disabled] [size=128]
    Expansion ROM at d2080000 [disabled] [size=512K]
    Capabilities: [60] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [68] MSI: Enable- Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 0000000000000000 Data: 0000
    Capabilities: [78] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 256 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s unlimited, L1 <64us
    ExtTag+ AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset- SlotPowerLimit 25W
    DevCtl: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq-
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag+ PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop+
    MaxPayload 256 bytes, MaxReadReq 512 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr- TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 8GT/s, Width x8, ASPM L0s L1, Exit Latency L0s <512ns, L1 <4us
    ClockPM+ Surprise- LLActRep- BwNot- ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM+ AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 5GT/s (downgraded), Width x4 (downgraded)
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range AB, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR-
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- TPHComp- ExtTPHComp-
    AtomicOpsCap: 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled,
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn-
    LnkCap2: Supported Link Speeds: 2.5-8GT/s, Crosslink- Retimer- 2Retimers- DRS-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 8GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -6dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Virtual Channel
    Caps: LPEVC=0 RefClk=100ns PATEntryBits=1
    Arb: Fixed- WRR32- WRR64- WRR128-
    Ctrl: ArbSelect=Fixed
    Status: InProgress-
    VC0: Caps: PATOffset=00 MaxTimeSlots=1 RejSnoopTrans-
    Arb: Fixed- WRR32- WRR64- WRR128- TWRR128- WRR256-
    Ctrl: Enable+ ID=0 ArbSelect=Fixed TC/VC=ff
    Status: NegoPending- InProgress-
    Capabilities: [128 v1] Power Budgeting <?>
    Capabilities: [600 v1] Vendor Specific Information: ID=0001 Rev=1 Len=024 <?>
    Capabilities: [900 v1] Secondary PCI Express
    LnkCtl3: LnkEquIntrruptEn- PerformEqu-
    LaneErrStat: 0
    Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau

    01:00.1 Audio device: NVIDIA Corporation GK208 HDMI/DP Audio Controller (rev a1)
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin B routed to IRQ 17
    Region 0: Memory at d2000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
    Capabilities: [60] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D3 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [68] MSI: Enable- Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 0000000000000000 Data: 0000
    Capabilities: [78] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 256 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s unlimited, L1 <64us
    ExtTag+ AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset- SlotPowerLimit 25W
    DevCtl: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq-
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag+ PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop+
    MaxPayload 256 bytes, MaxReadReq 512 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq- AuxPwr- TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 8GT/s, Width x8, ASPM L0s L1, Exit Latency L0s <512ns, L1 <4us
    ClockPM+ Surprise- LLActRep- BwNot- ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM+ AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 5GT/s (downgraded), Width x4 (downgraded)
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range AB, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR-
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Not Supported, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- TPHComp- ExtTPHComp-
    AtomicOpsCap: 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled,
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn-
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -6dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel
    Kernel modules: snd_hda_intel

    02:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 3165 Plus Bluetooth (rev 79)
    Subsystem: Intel Corporation Dual Band Wireless-AC 3165
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 127
    Region 0: Memory at d2200000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=8K]
    Capabilities: [c8] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI+ D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0+,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [d0] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee04004 Data: 0024
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <512ns, L1 unlimited
    ExtTag- AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset+ SlotPowerLimit 0W
    DevCtl: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr+ FatalErr+ UnsupReq+
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr+ NoSnoop+ FLReset-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq+ AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L1, Exit Latency L1 <32us
    ClockPM+ Surprise- LLActRep- BwNot- ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM L1 Enabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM+ AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range B, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR+
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Via WAKE#, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- TPHComp- ExtTPHComp-
    AtomicOpsCap: 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 16ms to 55ms, TimeoutDis- LTR+ 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled,
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 2.5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -3.5dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Advanced Error Reporting
    UESta: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UEMsk: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UESvrt: DLP+ SDES+ TLP- FCP+ CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF+ MalfTLP+ ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    CESta: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr-
    CEMsk: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr+
    AERCap: First Error Pointer: 00, ECRCGenCap- ECRCGenEn- ECRCChkCap- ECRCChkEn-
    MultHdrRecCap- MultHdrRecEn- TLPPfxPres- HdrLogCap-
    HeaderLog: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
    Capabilities: [140 v1] Device Serial Number 4c-34-88-ff-ff-be-e9-93
    Capabilities: [14c v1] Latency Tolerance Reporting
    Max snoop latency: 3145728ns
    Max no snoop latency: 3145728ns
    Capabilities: [154 v1] L1 PM Substates
    L1SubCap: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+ L1_PM_Substates+
    PortCommonModeRestoreTime=30us PortTPowerOnTime=60us
    L1SubCtl1: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+
    T_CommonMode=0us LTR1.2_Threshold=106496ns
    L1SubCtl2: T_PwrOn=60us
    Kernel driver in use: iwlwifi
    Kernel modules: iwlwifi

    03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 15)
    Subsystem: Lenovo RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- >SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0, Cache Line Size: 64 bytes
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 17
    Region 0: I/O ports at c000 [size=256]
    Region 2: Memory at d2104000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4K]
    Region 4: Memory at d2100000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
    Capabilities: [40] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1+ D2+ AuxCurrent=375mA PME(D0+,D1+,D2+,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [50] MSI: Enable- Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 0000000000000000 Data: 0000
    Capabilities: [70] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 01
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <512ns, L1 <64us
    ExtTag- AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset- SlotPowerLimit 10W
    DevCtl: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr+ FatalErr+ UnsupReq+
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 4096 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr+ NonFatalErr- FatalErr- UnsupReq+ AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L0s L1, Exit Latency L0s unlimited, L1 <64us
    ClockPM+ Surprise- LLActRep- BwNot- ASPMOptComp+
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes, Disabled- CommClk+
    ExtSynch- ClockPM+ AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1
    TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Range ABCD, TimeoutDis+ NROPrPrP- LTR+
    10BitTagComp- 10BitTagReq- OBFF Via message/WAKE#, ExtFmt- EETLPPrefix-
    EmergencyPowerReduction Not Supported, EmergencyPowerReductionInit-
    FRS- TPHComp- ExtTPHComp-
    AtomicOpsCap: 32bit- 64bit- 128bitCAS-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis- LTR+ 10BitTagReq- OBFF Disabled,
    AtomicOpsCtl: ReqEn-
    LnkCap2: Supported Link Speeds: 2.5GT/s, Crosslink- Retimer- 2Retimers- DRS-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 2.5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance Preset/De-emphasis: -6dB de-emphasis, 0dB preshoot
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -6dB, EqualizationComplete- EqualizationPhase1-
    EqualizationPhase2- EqualizationPhase3- LinkEqualizationRequest-
    Retimer- 2Retimers- CrosslinkRes: unsupported
    Capabilities: [b0] MSI-X: Enable+ Count=4 Masked-
    Vector table: BAR=4 offset=00000000
    PBA: BAR=4 offset=00000800
    Capabilities: [100 v2] Advanced Error Reporting
    UESta: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UEMsk: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UESvrt: DLP+ SDES+ TLP- FCP+ CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF+ MalfTLP+ ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    CESta: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr-
    CEMsk: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- AdvNonFatalErr+
    AERCap: First Error Pointer: 00, ECRCGenCap+ ECRCGenEn- ECRCChkCap+ ECRCChkEn-
    MultHdrRecCap- MultHdrRecEn- TLPPfxPres- HdrLogCap-
    HeaderLog: 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
    Capabilities: [140 v1] Virtual Channel
    Caps: LPEVC=0 RefClk=100ns PATEntryBits=1
    Arb: Fixed- WRR32- WRR64- WRR128-
    Ctrl: ArbSelect=Fixed
    Status: InProgress-
    VC0: Caps: PATOffset=00 MaxTimeSlots=1 RejSnoopTrans-
    Arb: Fixed- WRR32- WRR64- WRR128- TWRR128- WRR256-
    Ctrl: Enable+ ID=0 ArbSelect=Fixed TC/VC=ff
    Status: NegoPending- InProgress-
    Capabilities: [160 v1] Device Serial Number 01-00-00-00-68-4c-e0-00
    Capabilities: [170 v1] Latency Tolerance Reporting
    Max snoop latency: 3145728ns
    Max no snoop latency: 3145728ns
    Capabilities: [178 v1] L1 PM Substates
    L1SubCap: PCI-PM_L1.2+ PCI-PM_L1.1+ ASPM_L1.2+ ASPM_L1.1+ L1_PM_Substates+
    PortCommonModeRestoreTime=150us PortTPowerOnTime=150us
    L1SubCtl1: PCI-PM_L1.2- PCI-PM_L1.1- ASPM_L1.2- ASPM_L1.1-
    T_CommonMode=0us LTR1.2_Threshold=306176ns
    L1SubCtl2: T_PwrOn=150us
    Kernel driver in use: r8169
    Kernel modules: r8169

    root@pve:~#

     

     



     

    posted @ 2024-03-14 20:38  彧先生  閱讀(250)  評論(0編輯  收藏  舉報
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